Part of the Come Look With Me series, this title introduces middle readers to 12 Latin American artists through full-page color reproductions of their artwork and thought-provoking, interactive questions, brief biographies, and information about hte artworks. Students in our schools should be made aware of the rich traditions associated with Latin American art. This book provides an introduction to more modern works reflecting political, social and cultural themes in Latin American art.
These artists come from many countries, cultures and language areas. Their art reflects a shift in thinking about the nature of art. Each of the 12 artists is represented by a full-page color reproduction and general information about the artwork. A brief biography of the artist is included. A series of questions introduce the discussion of each artist's work. All in all, this is an excellent introductory text for upper-elementary and middle-school students.
It can provide an excellent starting point for further explorations into Latin American art. After giving suggestions for ways that parents and teachers can use this book with children, the author takes a look at 12 Latin American artists and one each of their paintings. Following the same format for each, author Kimberly Lane features a painting with three to four questions that the reader might answer after examining each painting. She then moves on to give a brief outline of the artist's life and his or her artistic style in general.
Each page of text ends with a focus on the featured painting.
The book concludes by suggesting that the reader return to the book and examine the paintings again on a new day with fresh questions in mind. For example, "What questions would you ask the artist about this work if he or she were here? I can see this book being very useful for art teachers when they are introducing art from different cultures. Kimberly Lane, as art teacher at The School at Columbia University, curates a tour of twelve Latin American art works explaining how the artists became painters and some of the goals they tried to achieve through their art. Lane's choices date from to but are mainly clustered in the s and s.
Full-page color reproductions are each accompanied by a few paragraphs about the artist's personal background often including his or her social consciousness ; aesthetic influences on his or her work; and the painting itself. Titles are respectfully given in the exact language used by the institutional or individual owners of he original works.
Heading each page of text are questions that draw young readers into the experience of the work. At the end of the book, readers are instructed to go back and look at the paintings again , with a new set of questions, including "If you could go inside one of these artworks, which one would you choose? What would it be like to be inside this work? Although designed for classroom use, precocious young historians and potential art critics will find plenty to mull over and delight in on their own.
Kimberly Lane shares her knowledge of teaching art criticism and the "guided looking" approach of Gladys S. Latin America is a very diverse area of land that holds various cuisines that vary from nation to nation. Some items typical of Latin American cuisine include maize -based dishes and drinks tortillas , tamales , arepas , pupusas , chicha morada , chicha de jora and various salsas and other condiments guacamole , pico de gallo , mole. These spices are generally what give the Latin American cuisines a distinct flavor in penors; yet, each country of Latin America tends to use a different spice and those that share spices tend to use them at different quantities.
Thus, this leads to a variety across the land. Meat is also greatly consumed and constitutes one of the main dishes in many Latin American countries where they are considered specialties, referred to as Asado or Churrasco. Latin American beverages are just as distinct as their foods. Some of the beverages can even date back to the times of the Native Americans. Some popular beverages include mate , Pisco Sour , horchata , chicha , atole , cacao and aguas frescas. Desserts in Latin America include dulce de leche , alfajor , arroz con leche , tres leches cake , Teja and flan.
Traditionally, Mexicans have struggled with the creation of a united identity. Mexico is a large country with a large population, therefore having many cultural traits found only in some parts of the country. The north of Mexico is the least culturally diverse due to its very low Native American population and high density of those of European descent. Northern Mexicans are also more Americanized due to the common border with the United States.
Central and southern Mexico is where many well-known traditions find their origin, therefore the people from this area are in a way the most traditional, but their collective personality can't be generalized. People from Puebla , for instance, are thought to be conservative and reserved, and just a few kilometers away, the people from Veracruz have the fame of being very outgoing and liberal.
Chilangos Mexico City natives are believed to be a bit aggressive, and self-centered. The regiomontanos from Monterrey are thought to be rather proud, regardless of their social status. Almost every Mexican state has its own accent, making it fairly easy to distinguish the origin of someone by their use of language. The derogatory term naco was forged by the middle and upper-class Mexicans to refer to the native or mestizo population. The term allegedly comes from the word totonaco, which is one of the ethnic groups in Valle de Mexico.
Its use has been made popular even among the poorest classes. Mexicans differ in opinion about the meaning of the word. Some would use it for a person who dresses in a tacky or tasteless manner, some use it to refer to the natives, some to the poor classes, and other for people with less education or culture and other ideology. The term fresa is in some terms the opposite of naco, and it is not always derogatory and means always some relative high economic status of the person termed in that way.
Traditionally, people with more European looks and belonging to the middle or high classes are called fresas. Dancing and singing are commonly part of family gatherings, bringing the old and young together, no matter what kind of music is being played, like cumbia , salsa, merengue or the more Mexican banda. Dancing is a strong part of the culture. Mexicans in places like Guadalajara , Puebla , Monterrey , Mexico City , and most middle-sized cities, enjoy a great variety of options for leisure.
Shopping centers are a favorite among families, since there has been an increasing number of new malls that cater to people of all ages and interests. A large number of them, have multiplex cinemas, international and local restaurants, food courts, cafes, bars, bookstores and most of the international renowned clothing brands are found too. Mexicans are prone to travel within their own country, making short weekend trips to a neighbouring city or town. The standard of living in Mexico is higher than most of the other countries in Latin America attracting migrants in search for better opportunities.
With the recent economic growth, many high-income families live in single houses, commonly found within a gated community, called "fraccionamiento". The reason these places are the most popular among the middle and upper classes is that they offer a sense of security and provide social status. Poorer Mexicans, by contrast, live a harsh life, although they share the importance they grant to family, friends and cultural habits.
Local news shows are modeled after American counterparts like the Eyewitness News and Action News formats. Mexico's national sports are charreria and bullfighting. Ancient Mexicans played a ball game which still exists in Northwest Mexico Sinaloa, the game is called Ulama , though it is not a popular sport any more. Most Mexicans enjoy watching bullfights. Almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico City has the largest bullring in the world, which seats 55, people. But the favorite sport remains football soccer while baseball is also popular especially in the northern states because of the American influence, and a number of Mexicans have become stars in the US Major Leagues.
Professional wrestling is shown on shows like Lucha Libre. American football is practiced at the major universities like UNAM. Basketball has also been gaining popularity, with a number of Mexican players having been drafted to play in the National Basketball Association. The culture of Guatemala reflects strong Mayan and Spanish influences and continues to be defined as a contrast between poor Mayan villagers in the rural highlands, and the urbanized and wealthy mestizos population who occupy the cities and surrounding agricultural plains.
The cuisine of Guatemala reflects the multicultural nature of Guatemala, in that it involves food that differs in taste depending on the region. Guatemala has 22 departments or divisions , each of which has very different food varieties. For example, Antigua Guatemala is well known for its candy which makes use of many local ingredients fruits, seeds and nuts along with honey, condensed milk and other traditional sweeteners. Antigua's candy is very popular when tourists visit the country for the first time and is a great choice in the search for new and interesting flavors.
Many traditional foods are based on Maya cuisine and prominently feature corn, chiles and beans as key ingredients. Various dishes may have the same name as a dish from a neighboring country, but may in fact be quite different for example the enchilada or quesadilla , which are nothing like their Mexican counterparts.
The music of Guatemala is diverse. Guatemala's national instrument is the marimba , an idiophone from the family of the xylophones, which is played all over the country, even in the remotest corners. Towns also have wind and percussion bands -week processions, as well as on other occasions. The Garifuna people of Afro-Caribbean descent, who are spread thinly on the northeastern Caribbean coast , have their own distinct varieties of popular and folk music.
Cumbia , from the Colombian variety, is also very popular especially among the lower classes. Dozens of Rock bands have emerged in the last two decades, making rock music quite popular among young people. Guatemala also has an almost five-century-old tradition of art music, spanning from the first liturgical chant and polyphony introduced in to contemporary art music. Much of the music composed in Guatemala from the 16th century to the 19th century has only recently been unearthed by scholars and is being revived by performers.
Guatemalan literature is famous around the world whether in the indigenous languages present in the country or in Spanish. Though there was likely literature in Guatemala before the arrival of the Spanish, all the texts that exist today were written after their arrival. It is a compendium of Mayan stories and legends, aimed to preserve Mayan traditions. Due to its combination of historical, mythical, and religious elements, it has been called the Mayan Bible. It is a vital document for understanding the culture of pre-Columbian America. It is thought to date from the 15th century and narrates the mythical and dynastic origins of the Kek'chi' people and their relationships with neighboring peoples.
The 16th century saw the first native-born Guatemalan writers that wrote in Spanish. He was forced into exile by Carlos III. He traveled to Mexico and later to Italy, where he did. He originally wrote his Rusticatio Mexicana and his poems praising the bishop Figueredo y Victoria in Latin. The Maya people are known for their brightly colored yarn-based textiles, which are woven into capes, shirts, blouses, huipiles and dresses.
Each village has its own distinctive pattern, making it possible to distinguish a person's home town on sight. Women's clothing consists of a shirt and a long skirt. Roman Catholicism combined with the indigenous Maya religion is the unique syncretic religion which prevailed throughout the country and still does in the rural regions. Beginning from negligible roots prior to , however, Protestant Pentecostalism has grown to become the predominant religion of Guatemala City and other urban centers and down to mid-sized towns.
Always depicted in black, he wears a black hat and sits on a chair, often with a cigar placed in his mouth and a gun in his hand, with offerings of tobacco, alcohol and Coca-Cola at his feet.
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The locals know him as San Simon of Guatemala. Nicaraguan culture has several distinct strands. The Pacific coast has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by European culture but enriched with Amerindian sounds and flavors. The Pacific coast of the country was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. The Caribbean coast of the country, on the other hand, was once a British protectorate. English is still predominant in this region and spoken domestically along with Spanish and indigenous languages.
Its culture is similar to that of Caribbean nations that were or are British possessions, such as Jamaica , Belize , The Cayman Islands , etc.
Nicaraguan music is a mixture of indigenous and European, especially Spanish and to a lesser extent German, influences. The latter was a result of the German migration to the central-north regions of Las Segovias where Germans settled and brought with them polka music which influenced and evolved into Nicaraguan mazurka, polka and waltz. The Germans that migrated to Nicaragua are speculated to have been from the regions of Germany which were annexed to present-day Poland following the Second World War; hence the genres of mazurka, polka in addition to the waltz.
One of the more famous composers of classical music and Nicaraguan waltz was Jose de la Cruz Mena who was actually not from the northern regions of Nicaragua but rather from the city of Leon in Nicaragua. More nationally identified, however, are musical instruments such as the marimba which is also common across Central America.
The marimba of Nicaragua is uniquely played by a sitting performer holding the instrument on his knees. It is usually accompanied by a bass fiddle , guitar and guitarrilla a small guitar like a mandolin. This music is played at social functions as a sort of background music.
The marimba is made with hardwood plates, placed over bamboo or metal tubes of varying lengths. It is played with two or four hammers. The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua is known for a lively, sensual form of dance music called Palo de Mayo. It is especially loud and celebrated during the Palo de Mayo festival in May The Garifuna community exists in Nicaragua and is known for its popular music called Punta. Literature of Nicaragua can be traced to pre-Columbian times with the myths and oral literature that formed the cosmogonic view of the world that indigenous people had.
Some of these stories are still known in Nicaragua. Like many Latin American countries, the Spanish conquerors have had the most effect on both the culture and the literature. It is regarded as one of Latin America's most distinctive colonial-era expressions and as Nicaragua's signature folkloric masterpiece combining music, dance and theater.
As such, many of the traditions date back to Incan traditions. During the independization of the Americas many countries including Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador and Panama formed what was known as Gran Colombia , a federal republic that later dissolved, however, the people in these countries believe each other to be their brothers and sisters and as such share many traditions and festivals. Peru and Bolivia were also one single country until Bolivia declared its independence, nevertheless, both nations are close neighbors that have somewhat similar cultures.
Bolivia and Peru both still have significant Native American populations primarily Quechua and Aymara which mixed Spanish cultural elements with their ancestors' traditions. The Spanish-speaking population mainly follows the Western customs. Important archaeological ruins, gold and silver ornaments, stone monuments, ceramics, and weavings remain from several important pre-Columbian cultures. The majority of the Ecuadorian population is mestizo, a mixture of both European and Amerindian ancestry, and much like their ancestry, the national culture is also a blend of these two sources, along with influences from slaves from Africa in the coastal region.
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Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions,  though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque art dominated in colonial times, though it was modified by native traditions.
Peruvian literature has its roots in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century, and colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma. Peruvian cuisine is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from African, Arab, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese cooking. Because of the variety of climates within Peru, a wide range of plants and animals are available for cooking.
Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish and African roots. The culture of Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America. Thanks partly to geography, Colombian culture has been heavily fragmented into five major cultural regions. Rural to urban migration and globalization have changed how many Colombians live and express themselves as large cities become melting pots of people many of whom are refugees from the various provinces.
Many aspects of Colombian culture can be traced back to the culture of Spain of the 16th century and its collision with Colombia's native civilizations see: Muisca , Tayrona. The Spanish brought Catholicism , African slaves , the feudal encomienda system, and a caste system that favored European-born whites. After independence from Spain, the criollos struggled to establish a pluralistic political system between conservative and liberal ideals. Ethno-racial groups maintained their ancestral heritage culture: whites tried to keep themselves, despite the growing number of illegitimate children of mixed African or indigenous ancestry.
These people were labeled with any number of descriptive names, derived from the casta system, such as mulato and moreno. Blacks and indigenous people of Colombia also mixed to form zambos creating a new ethno-racial group in society. This mix also created a fusion of cultures. Carnivals for example became an opportunity for all classes and colors to congregate without prejudice. The introduction of the bill of rights of men and the abolishment of slavery eased the segregationist tensions between the races, but the dominance of the whites prevailed and prevails to some extent to this day.
The industrial revolution arrived relatively late at the beginning of the 20th century with the establishment of the Republic of Colombia. Colombians had a period of almost 50 years of relative peace [ citation needed ] interrupted only by a short armed conflict with Peru over the town of Leticia in Venezuelan culture has been shaped by indigenous , African and especially European Spanish. Before this period, indigenous culture was expressed in art petroglyphs , crafts , architecture shabonos , and social organization.
Aboriginal culture was subsequently assimilated by Spaniards; over the years, the hybrid culture had diversified by region. At present the Indian influence is limited to a few words of vocabulary and gastronomy. The African influence in the same way, in addition to musical instruments like the drum. The Spanish influence was more important and in particular came from the regions of Andalusia and Extremadura, places of origin of most settlers in the Caribbean during the colonial era.
As an example of this can include buildings, part of the music, the Catholic religion and language. Spanish influences are evident bullfights and certain features of the cuisine. Venezuela also enriched by other streams of Indian and European origin in the 19th century, especially France. In the last stage of the great cities and regions entered the U. For example: From the United States comes the influence of the taste of baseball and modern architectural structures.
Venezuelan art is gaining prominence. Modernism took over in the 20th century. They created a new plastic language. In more recent times, Venezuela produced a new diverse generation of innovating painters. Venezuelan literature originated soon after the Spanish conquest of the mostly pre-literate indigenous societies; it was dominated by Spanish influences. Baseball and football are Venezuela's most popular sports, and the Venezuela national football team , is passionately followed. In the 19th century, Brazilian theatre began with romanticism along with a fervor for political independence.
They were centers of industrial and economic development. Like this company, it was in the late s when the first stable theatre companies formed around well-known actors. These actors were able to practice authentic Brazilian gestures gradually freed from Portuguese influence. Except for some political criticism in the low comedies, the dramas of this period were not popular.
Occasionally the question of dependence on Europe or North America was raised. They were an attempt to deal with political themes, nationalism, and anti-imperialism. His theatre was inspired by Meyerhold's and Brecht's theories, with a political sarcasm like Mayakovsky. With this production, Brazilian theatre moved into the modem period.
Paradoxically, this led to a second renewal which engaged popular forms and sentiments; a renewal that was decidedly nationalistic with social and even communist leanings. During this time, the Stanislavsky system of acting was most popular and widely used. The next phase was from to the signing of the Institutional Act Number Five in It marked the end of freedom and democracy. These ten years were the most productive of the century. During this decade a generation accepted theatre as an activity with social responsibility. At its height, this phase of Brazilian theatre was characterized by an affirmation of national values.
Actors and directors became political activists who risked their jobs and lives daily. Through this growth of Latin America politically and the influence of European theatre, an identity of what is theatre in Latin America stemmed out of it. Modern painting in Brazil was born during Modern Art Week in Brazilian contemporary photography is one of the most creative in Latin America, growing in international prominence each year with exhibitions and publications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The richness of Latin American culture is the product of many influences, including: Spanish and Portuguese culture , owing to the region's history of colonization, settlement and continued immigration by Spain and Portugal.
All the core elements of Latin American culture are of Iberian origin. Pre-Columbian cultures , whose importance is today particularly notable in countries such as Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, and is central to indigenous communities such as the Quechua, Maya and Aymara.
Mostly of immigration and indentured laborers who arrived from the coolie trade influenced the culture of Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Panama and Peru in areas such as food, art, and cultural trade. Influences are particularly strong in the dance, music, cuisine, and religion of Cuba, Brazil, Dominican Republic and coastal Colombia. Main article: Ethnic groups in Latin America. See also: Amerindian languages.
Main article: Religion in Latin America.
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Further information: Folk Catholicism. Further information: Colombian folklore. Further information: Category:Brazilian folklore. Further information: Category:Mexican folklore. Further information: Category:Peruvian folklore. See also: Cuento. Further information: Latin America—United Kingdom relations.
Main article: Latin American art. See also: List of Latin American artists.