The Compilation Their approach to studying the Indian Civilization focuses on the following aspects of the Civilization. Showcasing the relevance of Nature and Organic Products based industry, as positive influencers of Economy and Lifestyle in tropical countries to keep Economy, Ecology and the Populace in good health. Highlighting the issue of Virtual Water trade and the arising global imbalance Stress on a paradigm shift from Gender Equality to Gender Complementary as the natural Mantra for restoring the Gender Balance in society Tracing the early history and timeline of the Indian civilization, prior to the Alexander era.
What is Culture? Rama Trilogy. Krishna Trilogy. Historical Krishna, Vol1 — Dating of Krishna To ratify the historicity of Krishna and set the timelines for the time when Krishna walked the earth and took part in the Mahabharata war. Historical Krishna, Vol2 — Footprints of Krishna To ratify the historicity of Krishna using the geographies that Krishna walked through.
Historical Krishna, Vol3 — Facets of Krishna To ratify the historicity of Krishna from the larger than life legends and image that Krishna has lived through in our memories. They have also received Forewords from stalwarts and experts in the respective disciplines, such as from, Justice M. Chidambaram, Principal Scientific Advisor to Govt. Prakash Javadekar, Hon.
The published works from this scholarly duo can be accessed at Book - www. D to both D. Hema Hari by Sri Sri University on September 5, for 2 decades of research in Civilizational Studies and publishing many books, films and writings. Haran Memorial Award on August 14th, Visalakshi Award from the Art of Living in Benagluru, on February 23rd, for their pioneering efforts to repurpose ancient knowledge for the modern age.
Opinions on their work, from prominent persons in society, including those from Dr. Social Contributions and Other Interests D. Hari is a well-rounded personality with multiple interests and social contribution. Hari is also part of the board of management of various institutions such as:- Hindu Mission Hospital — a bed, multispeciality, charity hospital in Tambaram, Chennai Valluvar Gurukulam — a foundation that runs schools for over economically disadvantaged children, in Tambaram, Chennai SDNB Vaishnav College for Women, Chromepet, Chennai.
Sarma Research Foundation — a foundation working for the publishing of ancient and still unpublished manuscripts of India Narayana Yoga Universal Trust and Dakshina Chitra — a heritage village in Chennai D. By this point in the film, Duryodhana is established as the voice of justice; he is a generous friend and a master of the art of love—all these being traits seldom attributed to him in mythological films.
The action now moves to the Pandava court, where Duryodhana arrives with much reluctance to participate in the ceremonial sacrifice yagam. Among the illusions is a full-fledged song by a courtesan Jayamalini, the most famous screen vamp of the late s. The film was remade in Telugu as Krishnaveni V. Madhusudhana Rao, , featuring Vanisri and Krishnam Raju.
Parts of the monologue are addressed directly to the camera, as if presenting a case to the spectator Images —8. Shakuni Dhulipala suggests the game of dice, saying Dharma Raja Yudhistara, played by Prabhakar Reddy is addicted to gambling vyasanaparudu. The vastrapaharanam sequence—when the Kauravas attempt to disrobe Draupadi in view of the entire court—a regular attraction in most stage and screen renderings of the epic, is the turning point of the film. Draupadi comes across as a strong woman, contrasting with the weak and wavering Pandavas. Krishna now enters the story, performing the miracle of providing clothing to Draupadi.
The shift is accompanied by a subtle but crucial change in the representation of Duryodhana, who, in spite of the elaborate justification he offers for ordering the disrobing of Draupadi, provides no explanation for the ethical objections raised by the latter to the game of dice and the attempt at disrobing her. As such, the emphasis laid by Karna on this sequence is not in itself notable—numerous earlier films and plays had given it pride of place in their renderings of the epic.
Bhrugubanda 58 points out that the second half of the film contains a number of padyalu sourced from the play Pandava Udyoga Vijayalu by Tirupati Venkata Kavulu. The first of the borrowed padyalu—which is also the very first poem in the film—is sung by Bhima when Draupadi is dragged into the court by Dussasana.
When the emissary Krishna enters the court, Karna is seen shar- ing the throne with Duryodhana. Karna objects to the tone of the message. All the elders present ask Duryodhana to agree to the offer. As Duryodhana listens on, Krishna sings another poem outlining the disasters that will strike him if the offer is not accepted. First, he points out that he cannot give away towns that are not directly under his rule they have already been gifted away.
Second, he argues, the Pandavas are not in fact his cousins because his paternal uncle Pandu was not their biological father. They do not share the same lineage at all. Moreover, he asks, if the empire were to be partitioned to each member of the extended family—the Kauravas and the 5 Pandavas—how much would each one get? Therefore it was safer for people to remain united and be governed by a single ruler.
Punctuating his speech with a brief padyamu, he concludes that he will give no land at all to the Pandavas. The very next scene has Krishna hailing Karna as his cousin bava and revealing to him the secret of his birth. The revelation comes in the form of a flashback which ends with the box containing the infant Karna floating in the river the point at which the film begins. In an exchange that is mostly in verse, Krishna offers Karna the highest place among the Pandavas and marriage with Draupadi. Karna refuses, stating that he has lived all his life as a low caste.
He adds that he cannot accept his sister-in-law, who is like his own mother, as a wife.
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Abhimanyu Balakrishna is then introduced in a song with his wife Uttara Deepa , who tries to dissuade him from going to the battlefield. The Abhimanyu sequences are among the few in the film when we do not see an NTR character on screen. When Drona proposes to Duryodhana that Karna attack Abhimanyu from the rear, Duryodhana hesitates for a moment before approaching Karna who, in turn, agrees with much reluctance to the violation of dharma. Soon afterwards Subhadra Kanchana reaches the place with Uttara. Karna hides and watches Subhadra bemoan his violation of dharma.
On the following day Karna spares all the other Pandavas, even as they slay his four sons. Soon after, he gives away his armour and earrings to Indra. Disguised as poor Brahmins, they beg the dying Karna to make an offering of gold. He breaks loose a golden tooth with a stone, washing it clean with water from a spring that he draws out with his arrow. This is his last act of generosity.
The Pandavas now learn of their relationship with Karna who, finally, calls Kunti mother. Duryodhana then arrives and Karna once again demonstrates his love for him when he dies bidding him farewell. He does not hide in the pond, as the familiar story goes, but decides that he will perform penance underwater. He comes out of the water when unable to bear the insult of Dharma Raja offering to gift him half the kingdom. When he tells the Pandavas he will give up his claim to the empire, Krishna intervenes to say that he will have to fight one of the Pandavas.
Duryodhana chooses Bhima. When he is about to slay Bhima, Krishna makes a sign that the latter should attack the thighs against the rules of battle. Duryodhana falls and his reprimand to Krishna for violating dharma makes the latter flinch in shame. The film ends. Dana Veera Sura Karna and the Telugu Mythological The film may be usefully compared with the box-office disaster Kurukshetram , directed by Kamalakara Kameswara Rao, who had the reputation of being a master of the mythological genre.
Last visited on 2 December Moreover, Suyodhana comes across as an advocate of caste reform as well as a forward-looking statesman who is worried about the territorial integrity of the empire. As we shall see, this interpretation of the epic is traceable to the influence of the early-twentieth-century non-Brahmin movement in Coastal Andhra.
However, we also need to note that the mythological film has never been known for an accurate interpretation of the epics and puranas. Furthermore, as Prasad n. He says in the course of his discussion of Maya Bazaar version : K. Reddy presents the puranic world as a consumerist utopia full of dazzling commodities and pleasures. Comedy, or the hasya rasa, remains the dominant mood of the film. The domestic scene is the setting for most of the action, away from the court, with its protocols and grandiloquence.
Intimacy, domesticity, femininity, glamour, wonder, and sensuousness are the effects that the camera seeks to achieve. Maya Bazaar shows that the mythological as a genre develops in tandem with the other genres and is as often a social in costume as the social may be a mythological in modern dress. More recently Prasad 75 notes that Maya Bazaar inaugurated the trend in the Telugu mythological of borrowing elements from the social. The most notable among these was the comedy-track, which was already a standard feature of the s social and now made an appearance in this film.
These in turn traced their origins to popular theatre. Karna does not attempt to narrate the epic faithfully—as it was told and shown in the past. At the same time, it does not attempt to radically transform the mythological beyond recognition either. It is framed by spectatorial familiarity with the very generic conventions that it both relies on but also digresses from.
All of this was repeated in the film, Dana Veera Sura Karna. Kunti S. Varalakshmi , for example, is shown without any introduction whatsoever in the sequence when Karna is disqualified by Drona. For example, in the Ekalavya sequence discussed above, the film inserts Karna and also has Arjuna gesturing to Drona, transforming the entire episode into a modern-day statement on the caste arrogance of the Pandavas and their teacher.
By the time Karna was made NTR was re-established as the leading star of the industry on the strength of the new social that was assembled to showcase his star persona. What was left in and of the mythological that the social did not already offer a star of his stature? Venkat Rao points out that NTR was influenced by the Dravidian movement and the mythologicals he produced tended to follow the interpretive framework of non-Brahmin intellectuals like Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Chaudhury and Narla Venkateswara Rao both were Kamma by caste.
For this reason, the biographer adds, the stories of mythologicals produced and directed by NTR have story lines which deviate from standard versions of the epics Known as Kaviraju King of Poets , Tripuraneni was a major intellectual figure of the early twentieth century. In the early s Gopichand directed three films. It is thus pointless to suggest that a mythological had to be made to propagate fairly commonplace nationalist slogans and arguments for a strong state. Karna uses this register of Telugu with such consistency that even the most menial servants speak in it. Bate says medaitamil was assembled by Dravidian politicians and did not pre-exist politics at all ibid.
It was distinguished from the plain speech of a previous generation of Congressmen and people like Periyar E.
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Ramaswamy of the DK who was decisively not engaging in party politics. And Dravidianist orators became avatars of Tamil itself, of its purity, its virginity, and its antiquity. Political discourse in Telugu within and outside the cinema had no equivalent with medaitamil. Compare, for instance, the famous courtroom speech by Gunasekharan, the Sivaji Ganesan character in Parasakthi Krishnan-Panju, As in other DMK films, we notice here the deployment of rhetorical and elevated language—an aural treat even to those like me who cannot understand what is being said—to make a sweeping critique of the powers that be and the court itself.
The voice modulations, rhythms, and cadences of the utterance, the awesome ability of the actor to fluently speak interminable lines and impossibly difficult words are sources of spectatorial pleasure. Karna creates a hierarchy between the padyalu it borrows from a well-known play and the speeches of Duryodhana in order to showcase the latter. This is particularly striking in the sequence when Krishna arrives at the Kaurava court to demand five towns.
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Duryodhana has only one verse in the entire film, while even Bhima has two. Each speech runs into multiple shots in which the camera angles are changed but the focus remains the star. There are moments when the star turns away from the camera, only to be seen facing it in the next shot. As pointed out earlier, the film continuously revolves around the multiple roles of NTR, often transiting from one sequence to the next by cutting from one NTR character to another. Mythological Speech: Films in a Political Campaign cabaret-type song depicting the decadence of Selya and starring the Bombay cabaret specialist Helen, known as Halam in Telugu.
During the rest of the film, screen space is constantly occupied by NTR. As Bhrugubanda points out, the spectator is not allowed to forget that the speaking subject is NTR, the star. Just as NTR the star fully occupies the screen space, his voice too occupies pride of place on the soundtrack. Of utmost significance for our purposes is the theatricality of mythological speech—the fact that it is quite literally traceable to the theatre and sound film, and not to some ancient or traditional practice.
Arguably, among the earliest instances, if not the very first, mythological speech is by the Duryodhana character in Karna. My notion of mythological speech does not merely underline the surprising—and unprecedented—surfacing of political criticism in the Telugu mythological. It is not even meant to underscore the dubious anti-Brahminism and nationalism of this film. The deployment of mythological speech in Karna is evidence of a new node of convergence between film and audio recording industries, which had in any case been intimately related since early sound film.
The historical importance of the songbook for the Telugu talkie is indexed by the printrun of the booklet of the version of Maya Bazaar, whose back cover states that 75, copies were printed in Madras. Karna was made at a time when elements of the mythological, a film form on the decline, began to be re-housed in the social. With hindsight it is possible to suggest that an attendant consequence is the emptying out of the mythological film and its eventual extinction. The immediate use Telugu cinema found for mythological speech was as an object of parody in Yama Gola T.
In this film high-sounding language and political critique, the twin attributes of mythological speech, are associated with two different characters. Yama Satyanarayana is a character whose high- sounding speech recalls the mythological film while Satyam satirizes the deployment of a highly rhetorical Telugu for political critique. Satyam himself, an honest and energetic village president while alive, sets about organizing the workers of Yama: they are, as we saw earlier, overworked on account of an increase in the numbers of sinners in Kaliyugam.
Even outside the cinema, mythological speech found uses only much later. He did not attempt to distance himself from the cinema or foreground his charitable activities which were in any case rather modest in scale and achievement. Indeed, the electorate was never given a chance to forget his association with the cinema. His campaign was marked by his distinctive Telugu—of a kind that no one actually spoke off-screen and that he alone made famous on-screen.
The language he deployed was rhetorical, alliterative, and spoken with pauses and modulations of voice that were glaringly theatrical. NTR had not deployed some obscure classical variant of Telugu in the political arena but a method of language-use assembled by the film industry. This performative idiom, which marked his campaign, was strongly associated with acting style in mythologicals, a style shunned by the realist s social. In short, the star-turned-politician carried over to the election campaign a mode of excessive performativity deriving from theatre and mediated by the cinema Images and This was as true of his film career as of his speeches.
The biographer has nothing to say about the content of the speech. Vijayabhaskar Reddy Newstoday c: 1. A disclaimer is in order here: I am not suggesting NTR was a fascist. Although he was often called one by the radical left and by civil liberties activists, this is not an accurate description of his politics.
In spite of the fact that he became increasingly authoritarian after his re-election in the mid-term poll, there are good reasons why the term fascist should not be loosely used to describe him. NTR was no rabble-rouser and his public speeches—in spite of his general disregard for democratic norms—were remarkably free of hatred for the out-group.
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Unlike the quintessential fascist, he did not depend on fear to mobilize people. His contempt was singularly focused on the Congress party. Although Adorno himself did not attempt to extend his analysis to include non- fascist political mobilizations, I suggest that his discussion illuminates electoral and other political mobilizations as well. We may compare it with the social phenomenon of the soap opera.
The achievement of the self-styled leader is a performance reminiscent of the theatre, of sport and of so-called religious revivals. Adorno His formulation of a relationship between the enjoyment of soap opera and the purchase of the soap is dubious, to say the least.
However, whether or not soap is actually purchased does not dull the sharpness of his larger argument. The purchase of the soap is the means by which the listener is expected to express her satisfaction for the gratification offered via a good cry. It is as if the gathered masses were being offered an entertaining performance in order to give them the chance of expressing their satisfaction and gratitude to the entertainer with their vote.
Whether or not they went along and voted for him is immaterial for my argument—the issue is the exchange they were invited to be a part of. Film thus addresses its audience as if it were a political community, a stand-in for it. Here the listener-participant is already part of a large group that has been assembled for explicitly political purposes. The political subject is addressed as if he were at the movies, or returned to the cinema, whose pleasures the biggest star of the industry recalls from the political platform.
Campaign films did not address their spectator as someone credulous who was likely to believe that the star was a saviour in real life. No attempt was made at an image makeover to make NTR more presentable to the elect- orate. These films did not contain propaganda; instead, they offered a variety of cinematic pleasures and the campaign itself carried over some of these pleasures into the domain of politics Images and There is a fusion of excessive performance of the here and now, and intertextual references to mythological films featuring the star himself in Justice Chaudhury.
Unlike Bobbili Puli, which in the heat of the election campaign could be read as an attack on the government and therefore the Congress party , Justice Chaudhury does not lend itself to being read as a critique of politics. There is a parallel between the acting and emoting styles of the mythological and this film.
Although campaign films featured a star-protagonist whose ability to deal with narrative-level crises was a foregone conclusion, these NTR films were increasingly marked by their emotional charge. In two of the campaign films I have discussed, the patriarch played by the star dies Sardar Paparayudu and Kondaveeti Simham. In another he is awaiting death by hanging Bobbili Puli. This mode of establishing an emotional bond with the spectator, who vicariously feels his pain and cries with him, carries over to some of his later work, including Chandasasanudu and Major Chandrakant. What kind of a community could be adequately represented by this film star?
There is a man who always sides with the wronged sections of the people. So naturally there is sympathy for the hero. That is the style of role I perform. Regardless of the actual campaign, which came later, the campaign films are about community formation around the cinema, not particular political issues or party agendas. As we saw, by the late s the cinema had emerged as a cultural form potentially capable of addressing Telugus across regional divisions. The election was going to be won or lost on the basis of whether the electorate—addressed as the Telugu nation—could rise to the occasion and prove that it was indeed bonded by affect.
Mythological Film after the Election The election had the effect of transforming the Telugu mythological film in unexpected ways. The genre hybrid that NTR assembled—and would have used in his —3 election campaign had he managed to complete Charitra as originally planned, was at once saturated with mythological speech and devoid of puranic content. In Charitra, whose protagonist made predictions about the future, including some that NTR apparently interpreted as anticipating his own rise to political power, we are presented with a saint who is divinely endowed with the ability to see into the future.
Fattelal, This film was remade in Telugu as Bhakta Tukaram V. See Bhrugubanda 75— for a discussion of contemporary saint films in Telugu. He was given a book of predictions to read, in preparation to playing the role of its author. Poring over it, superstar N. NTR alone revisited the genre in the s with the express intention of producing campaign films. Charitra was the last commercially successful film NTR produced and directed.
Post-Charitra, he acted in just one social, which he did not produce or direct Major Chandrakant, K. Raghavendra Rao, In his own films he played the roles of historical figures, both Telugu and non-Telugu. For example, he played the lead in Samrat Ashok NTR, and acted in his home production Srinatha Kavisarvabhauma Bapu, , based on the life of the fifteenth-century Telugu poet Srinathudu. He also played the role of the eponymous mythological character in Brahmarishi Vishwamitra NTR, Shortly before his death, NTR was left with a minority splinter of the party that he had created in His isolation was the result of a revolt staged under the leadership of his son-in-law, N.
Chandrababu Naidu, in August , just a year after the star had led the TDP to a third electoral victory. He died of a heart attack on 18 January , before he could release this cassette. To the very end, his faith in the infallible power of his speech to move the masses remained unshaken. Introduction W hat does the cinema tell us about a society and its poli- tics? These are, first, the rise to prominence of an elite which continues to dominate parts of the country to this day; and, second, the emergence of a new idiom of mass politics.
In fact, my view is that in relation to the regions that became Andhra Pradesh in , where Telugu films were watched by ever-increasing numbers of people from the s, the history of these developments cannot be told without reference to the cinema. Telugu cinema, I argue, is directly implicated in the rise of the post-Independence ruling class—caste constellation, and more recently electoral mobilization.
The degree of intimacy between cinema and politics is best appreciated when we examine the career of the man who represented the new elite politically. It is remarkable how perfect an example he was of the new ruling elite of the state. His family lost most of its wealth during the Depression. As a college student he was drawn to the amateur theatre, and this led him eventually to the film industry. By the early s, roughly coinciding with the passing of the Abolition of Estates Act in , non-zamindar entrepreneurs from these agricultural castes replaced the colonial elite as the prime movers of the film industry.
Two pioneers of the pre-Independence period who facilitated the shift away from zamindari investments were Gudavalli Ramabrahmam and B. Ramabrahmam and Reddi presided over the setting up of production infrastructure in Madras, a city that attracted men and money.
Ramabrahmam was instrumental in the establishment of Sarathy Films, in which the main investor was a Presidency zamindar. The choice of stories, locations, sets, props, costumes, and of course the accents of actors—in short everything—had to be done to ensure that Telugu-language films were saturated with Teluguness. In —1 he was launched as a star by Vijaya Pictures, around the time that this production company took over B.
Hero-dwayam star-twosome , as they came to be known, were now not only the biggest stars but also went on to set up their own production companies and, in the s, film studios. Their growth as stars and entrepreneurs is symptomatic of the domination of the industry by the new elite of the erstwhile Presidency. It was an elite that had strong links to agriculture and related activities, and was non-Brahmin, non-Vaishya, and non-zamindar by origin. Actors, settings, and props required for showing the Telugu country were simply not to be found in Madras. And thus began the yearning for relocating the Telugu film industry out of Madras as well as the search for solutions to the problem of a cultural form that was not living up to its aesthetic-political potential.
By the s ANR and NTR had in fact come to be identified with what we can now recognize as alternative resolutions to the problem faced by Ramabrahmam. This was in part because over the next decade various factors changed the template on which Teluguness could be constructed. A regime of loans and subsidies was instituted in to offset real and notional losses to producers who worked from Hyderabad.
There were still good reasons for producers to remain in Madras where the studio set up by B. NTR was seen as preferring to stay on in Madras and, for that reason, earned some bad press even at the time that he overtook ANR as the highest paid actor in the industry.
What enabled NTR to make a credible claim to being the representative of a linguistic community? What did his film career have to do with the claim? In spite of the long history of the star politician as an object of social scientific analysis, there is precious little by way of a theoretically sound and empirically verifiable explanation of the NTR phenomenon. His political success has been variously attributed to his populist schemes subsidized rice for the poor, for example and ambient Telugu nationalist sentiments in the state. These claims do not withstand close scrutiny.
Nor does the attribution of his political success to the numerous divine roles that he played in films. NTR announced his decision to form a political party in March without any clear idea of what its agenda would be. Indeed, naming it the Telugu Desam Party took observers by surprise, for neither his remarkable film career nor occasional but spectacular philanthropic actions had been read as having anything to do with Telugu nationalism. As for his roles as screen gods, while there is no doubt that he was the master of the mythological film, the genre itself was more or less out of currency by Moreover, the most successful NTR mythological was a film based loosely on the Mahabharata in which the star played Karna, Krishna, and Duryodhana.
It has been assumed, for this region as a whole, that pre-existing frameworks for linguistic identity politics—such as for example Dravidian formations or Kannada organizations—were merely inherited by the cinema and that, at best, these pre-existing forms of politics had their agendas scaled up by the new entertainment. Sounds like your coming down with a cold.
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